Policies, rewards, and opportunities: Antecedents of employee retention

Rabia Asif, Sabahat Nisar


Purpose: Human resources are the most dynamic resources of any organization. The importance of human resource signifies to attract and retain talented employees within the organization for long term. As, retention of skilled employees is linked with organizations success, this study aims at revealing the antecedents of employee’s retention by carefully analyzing the impact of various HR practices such as career development opportunities, work-life policies, good supervision, and rewards. Design/Methodology: To achieve at research outcomes, the data are collected using primary sources through self-administered questionnaire survey. While, multiple regression is employed to test research hypotheses regarding the relation between chosen antecedents and employee’s retention. Findings: This research is sought to determine those variables having noteworthy influence on employee’s retention. The research findings support the positive influence of rewards and work-life balance on employee’s retention while supervisor’s support and career opportunities do not promote employees retention in private schools in Pakistan. Limitations: The researcher is limited in scope as data are obtained from the teaching staff working in private schools from Lahore
region. Further, other antecedents within the employee’s work-life may have specified impact on retention which must be incorporated in future research. Originality: Since, the academic staff at secondary school level plays an important role in influencing the moral character of the students, the job security would provide them with an edge to incorporate healthy practices in shaping students future life. The study contributes to the retention practices of private schools’ employees which will ensure a secured working environment leading to better performance.


Antecedents, good supervision and support, HR practices, opportunities, retention, work-life policies

Full Text:



Akila, R. (2012). A study on employee retention among executives at BGR, Energy systems LTD, Chennai. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research, 1(9), 18-32.

Anis, A., Nasir, A., & Safwan, N. (2011). Employee retention relationship to training and development: A compensation perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7), 2679-2685.

Ashraf, M., Ahmad, N., & Haider, S. (2016). Antecedents of turnover intentions: A study of karachi business schools. Journal of Business Studies, 12(1), 139-156.

Bamberger, P. A., Biron, M., & Meshoulam, I. (2014). Human Resource Strategy: Formulation, Implementation, and Impact. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Boyd, G., & Sutherland, M. (2006). Obtaining employee commitment to living the brand of the organization. African Journal of Business Management, 37(1), 9-20.

Cappelli, P. (2000). A market-driven approach to retaining talent. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 103-11.

Coff, R. W. (1997). Human assets and management dilemmas: Coping with hazards on the road to resourcebased theory. Academy of Management Journal, 22, 374-402.

Cole, C. L. (2000). Building loyalty. Workforce, 79(8), 45.

Connell, A. O., & Phillip, J. J. (2003). Managing Employee Retention: A Strategic Approach. Oxford, Butterworth: Heinemann.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

Enu-Kwesi, F., Koomson, F., Segbenya, M., & Annan-Prah, E. C. (2014). Determinants of employee retention in Ghana, Kumasi. European Journal of Contemporary Economics and Management, 1, 81.

Fatima, H. (2011). Does employee retention affect organizational competence? Industrial Engineering Letters, 1(1), 24-39.

Feldman, D. C. (1985). Managing Individual and Group Behavior in Organizations. New York, United States: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Fouche, E., Rothmann, S. S., & van der Vyver, C. (2017). Antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work among school teachers. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 43(1), 1-10.

Gardner, D. G., Dyne, L., & Pierce, J. L. (2004). The effects of pay level on organization‐based self‐esteem and Asif and Nisar: Antecedents of employee retention performance: A field study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(3), 307-322.

Grover, S. L., & Crooker, K. J. (1995). Who appreciates family‐responsive human resource policies: The impact of family‐friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non‐parents. Personnel Psychology, 48(2), 271-288.

Holtom, B. C., & Darabi, T. (2018). Job embeddedness theory as a tool for improving employee retention. In: Psychology of Retention. Berlin, Germany: Springer, p. 95-117.

Janjhua, Y., Chaudhary, R., & Sharma, R. (2016). An empirical study on antecedents of employee retention and turnover intentions of employees. International Journal of Research in Business Management, 4(5), 1-10.

Kossivi, B., Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 261-268.

Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2006). Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Kyriakidou, O., & Ozbilgin, M. (2004). Individuals, organizations and careers: A relational perspective. Career Development International, 9(1), 7-11.

Lane, K. A., Esser, J., Holte, B., & McCusker, M. A. (2010). A study of nurse faculty job satisfaction in community colleges in Florida. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 5(1), 16-26.

MacDuffie, J. P. (1995). Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: Organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(2), 197-221.

Messmer, M. (2000). Orientation programs can be key to employee retention. Strategic Finance, 81(8), 12-14.

Miller, N. G., Erickson, A., & Yust, B. L. (2001). Sense of place in the workplace: The relationship between personal objects and job satisfaction and motivation. Journal of Interior Design, 27(1), 35-44.

Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 493.

Otis, N., & Pelletier, L. G. (2005). A motivational model of daily hassles, physical symptoms, and future work intentions among police officers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(10), 2193-2214.

Pergamit, M. R., & Veum, J. R. (1999). What is a promotion? ILR Review, 52(4), 581-601.

Pillay, R. (2009). Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: A comparative analysis of the public and private sectors. Human Resources for Health, 7(1), 1-10.

Prince, B. J. (2005). Career-focused employee transfer processes. Career Development International, 10(4), 293-309.

Raikes, L., & Vernier, J. F. (2004). Rewarding and Retaining Key Talent: Are You Ready for the Recovery. Stamford, Connecticut, United States: Tower Perrin.

Richman, A. L., Civian, J. T., Shannon, L. L., Jeffrey Hill, E., & Brennan, R. T. (2008). The relationship of perceived flexibility, supportive work-life

policies, and use of formal flexible arrangements and occasional flexibility to employee engagement and expected retention. Community Work and Family, 11(2), 183-197.

Rothmann, S., Redelinghuys, K., & Botha, E. (2019). Workplace flourishing: Measurement, antecedents and outcomes. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 45(1), 1-11.

Shoaib, M., Noor, A., Tirmizi, S. R., & Bashir, S. (2009). Determinants of employee retention in telecom sector of pakistan. Vol. 14. In: Proceedings of the 2nd CBRC, Lahore, Pakistan, p. 1-18.

Shokunbi, O. A. (2016). Antecedents to employee engagement: A qualitative study of 28 senior secondary school teachers in Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6(6), 128-135.

Sullivan, J. (2009). The Ideal Turnover Rate, Battling Environmental Turnover. Canada: ECO, p. 1-4.

Vidal, M. E. S., Valle, R. S., & Aragón, M. I. B. (2007). Antecedents of repatriates’ job satisfaction and its influence on turnover intentions: Evidence from Spanish repatriated managers. Journal of Business

Research, 60(12), 1272-1281.

Woodruffe, C. (1999). Winning the Talent War: A Strategic Approach to Attracting, Developing and Retaining the Best People. New York, United States: John Wiley and Sons.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office:

Educational Research Multimedia & Publications,
S.N. 21, Plot No 24, Mirza Ghalib Road Malegaon Nasik,
Maharashtra India - 423203.
+912554235588, +919764558895
editor@scholarshub.net, www.scholarshub.net

Copyrights © 2010-2022 - ERM Publications, India     

This work is licensed under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

click site richard mille replica a fantastic read rolex replica read the article копии часов read this article orologi replica.